Jung vs Freud – How They Were Connected?
Carl Gustav Jung was a psychoanalyst and psychiatrist from Switzerland and the founder of analytical psychology. Sigmund Freud was neurologist from Austria and the founder of psychoanalysis – clinical method psychopathology treatment by a dialogue of the psychoanalyst and patient.
The Differences And Similarities Of Jung And Freud
Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud believed to have redefined the world of psychology. While Jung and Freud had contradictory theories, they both impacted the perception of people on equal measures. The two were not only well-regarded associates but great friends too. Freud appeared as the mentor and father to Jung, while Jung acted as the enthusiastic new prospect to the drive towards Freud. However, their business relationship and friendship came short soon after they disagree on various beliefs.
Carl Jung initially supported Freud due to their shared interest in the unconscious. Jung was a dynamic member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society also referred to as the Wednesday Psychological Society. In 1910, the International Psychoanalytical Association was established, and Jung became the president at Freud’s request.
In 1912 during the lecture tour of America, Jung openly criticized Freud’s theory of the Oedipus complex as well as his weight on infantile sexuality. This led to a permanent divide between the two, and Jung opted to develop his version of the psychoanalytic theory.
Initially, Jung and Freud developed their theories together. Nonetheless, they both have critical differences that divided psychoanalysis into two different categories. While Freud focused on human behavior and suppressed emotions, Jung believed that the human psyche was more complicated.
The Practice Of Psychology
Freud believed in visiting and seeing his patients more frequently, and he would visit them for at least 45 minutes a day up to six times every week. Jung, on the other hand, found this too excessive and steered about two sessions every week which were approximately one hour.
The practical methods by Jung had a significant influence on the modern practices of psychologists. They are more realistic and feasible with regards to the treatment of people, being that humans are a functional part of society. Moreover, Freud based a lot of research on using a couch. He used the couch as a tool for examining his patients. He believed that the patients he handled would be more comfortable sharing their thoughts as well as emotions lying down comfortable while facing away from the psychologist.
Jung, on the other hand, found worth in face-to-face interactions. Jung did not see the necessity to have the patient lying on a couch.
Both psychologists used transference as a tool for treating their patients but, they used it differently. Transference is a process by which desires, feelings, and thoughts are projected onto another person to help in analyzing a situation. Freud held that the technique could only be successful in the hierarchical relationships, and encouraged his patients to utilize transference to relate to fantasies as well as role models. Jung challenged Freud’s thoughts with non-conventional ideas. Jung viewed transference as an opportunity for two people to come to a common understanding by transferring their ideas collaboratively.
The Implication Of A Dream
Jung and Freud studied many dreams and came up with a number of their research. Both of them held that dreams were a crucial aspect when it came to the exploration of the unconscious mind. Freud supposed that dreams were the manifestation the innermost desires of the human.
In contrast, in unconscious sleep, desires are revealed in dreams and are often related to certain sexual desires. This allows for a better understanding of the thought and emotions of a person.
Role Of Religion And Spirituality
Freud believed that religion and the experimental nature of research and psychology should be distinguished. He observed religion as a way of escaping the harsh realities of the world. Also, Freud rejected the idea of paranormality without considering its presence in many cultural beliefs.
On the contrary, Jung had a greenlight on religion. He acknowledged religion in his theories as a vital part of human development. He explained that religion fostered communication and also allowed people to process their grievances. Jung further connected the archetypal theories to a wide range of religious symbols. According to Jung, Archetypes are the fundamental universal empathies of the world as believed and held by the humankind.
Both Freud and Jung were psychologists and interested in the unconscious mind. They worked together in 1906 as colleagues and also begun doing all-encompassing research, especially as regards to dream studies. Freud supposed that Jung could be his potential predecessor.
Some of the main similarities between the two psychologists include:
- Both focused the conscious and unconscious mind
- They both suppressed the human emotions and complexes manipulating behavior
- They both used dream analysis as their basis of research methodology